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Address

A location or unique identifier of a web site or a web page on the Internet facility.  Address is commonly known as URL (Uniformed Resource Locator).

API (Application Program Interface)
A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other system or control program such as a database management system (DBMS) or communications protocol.

Applet

An application written or embedded in Java language, viewable and runs only in a Java-enabled browsers.

Anonymous FTP

An FTP site on the Internet that consist of files downloadable to all user.  The user usually gains access by receiving a given password and using the username as 'anonymous'.  The given password is usually assigned by the system supporting its service.

Archie (ARCHIvE)
An Internet utility to search and keep track of filenames on the contents of web sites.  There are approximately 30 computer systems throughout the Internet, called "Archie servers," that maintain catalogs of files available for downloading from various FTP sites. Periodically, Archie servers search FTP sites throughout the Internet and record information about the files they find.

Some Internet hosts lets users log on via Telnet using the username "archie." >

Archive
To copy data onto a different disk or tape for backup or data retention purposes. Archived files are normally compressed to maximize storage media, and such compression programs may be called archiver or archiving programs. Commonly used archive file formats are .ZIP, .TAR, .ARJ, .LZH, .UC2.

Archive site
Contains archived files of many kinds, available for users to download either by FTP or E-mail.

ARJ
A compression program for back up or archiving from ARJ Software, Inc., Norwood, MA, (www.arjsoftware.com).

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
US governmental organisation which has been responsible for creating an experimental network which announced the beginning of the Internet.

Also known as Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA.)

ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork)
Network created by ARPA in 1969 at four sites including two University of California campuses, the Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah. The software was developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), and Honeywell 516 minicomputers were the first hardware used as packet switches.

In late 1972, the ARPAnet was demonstrated at the International Conference on Computers in Washington, DC. This was the first public demonstration of packet switching. Over the next decade, ARPAnet spawned other networks, and in 1983 with more than 300 computers connected, its protocols were changed to TCP/IP.

As TCP/IP and gateway technologies matured, more disparate networks were connected, and the ARPAnet became known as "the Internet" and "the Net."

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A code file containing standard text characters: numbers, letters, and standard punctuation.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A network technology for both LANs and WANs that supports realtime voice and video as well as data. It requires short bursts of large quantities of data that can survive small losses but must be broadcast in real time.

Attachment
Linking or to fasten a file ' to an E-mail message so that the file and the email can be sent together to the destination.  The file can be of any type like text, graphics, sound, video, spreadsheet, database, or even an entire application.



B
Backbone
A central high-speed network that handles the major traffic and may cater to the longest of distance. This part of the network is built by a company or organisation.  The smaller networks attach themselves to the backbone.

Bandwidth
The amount of information that can be transmitted in a given period of time through communication devices/ channels.

Baud
The signaling rate of a line, which is the number of transitions (voltage or frequency changes) that are made per second. It usually refers to modem speed. For example, a V.22bis modem generates 1200 bps at 600 baud.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A computer system used as an information source and forum for a particular interest group. A BBS functions somewhat like a stand-alone Web site, but without graphics.   Commonly it is used for distributing sharewares and downloading drivers.

Bit (Binary DigIT)
The smallest element or unit of computer storage or data comprising of either a 1 or 0.

Bookmark
Virtual stored location for quick retrieval.

bps (Bits Per Second)
The measurement speed of data transfer in a communications system.

Broadband

A method of transmitting data at high speed.

Browser or Web Browser
Software application that helps to find, navigate, view and interact with the World Wide Web (WWW) or the Internet. Common softwares for Web Browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape Communicator and NeoPlanet.



C
CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire)
 The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research where the World Wide Web was developed to enhance collaboration on research documents pertaining to particle physics.  A complete Web server software package is available at no charge from CERN at www.cern.ch.  The laboratory is located in Geneva, Switzerland.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
An interface-creation scripting program that allows to create WWW pages based on information from fill-in forms, checkboxes, text input etc.

Compress
To compact data to save space

CompuServe
The oldest Internet Service Provider. Founded in 1980, SPRYNET is CompuServe's Internet-only service. In 1998, CompuServe was acquired by America Online (AOL).

Cookie
Data created by a Web server that can be stored on the user's computer.  It provides a way for the Web site to keep track of a user's patterns and preferences and store it onto the user's own hard disk.

The cookies contain a range of URLs (addresses).  When the browser encounters those URLs again, it sends those specific cookies to the Web server. For example, if a user's ID were stored as a cookie, it would save that person from typing in the same information all over again when accessing that service for the second and subsequent time.

You can have your browser disable cookies or warn you before accepting a cookie. Look for the cookie options in your browser in the Options or Preferences menu.

Cybercafe
A cafe or bar allowing customers to explore the World Wide Web whilst having a drink or snack, usually charged per half-hour of usage.



D
Daemon
A UNIX program that executes in the background ready to perform an operation when required.

Dial-Up
Telephone connection in a system of many lines shared by many users.  With a modem, it is used to gain access to the Internet.

Digital Signature
An electronic signature that cannot be forged. It is a computed digest of the text that is encrypted and sent with the text message.

Domain Name
A part of registration category within the computer field. It often refers to the address of an Internet site.

Domain Name Server
The server that maintains a database of domain names (host names) and its corresponding IP addresses.  Example, if  www.yourcompany.com were to be presented to a DNS server, it would return as IP address 204.0.8.51.

Domain Name System
Name resolution software that lets users locate or relate computers or server on a UNIX network or the Internet (TCP/IP network) by domain name (e.g. www.yourcompany.com).

Download
To receive file or data over a network.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
Instant Internet and network access send data and voice over the same line at speeds up to 25 times faster than a 56K modem on a standard analogue phone line.

DTD (Document Type Definition)
A language that describes the contents of an SGML document. The DTD is also used with XML, and the DTD definitions may be embedded within an XML document or in a separate file. DTDs are expected to be replaced by an XML schema from the W3C.


E
Electronic Commerce (eCommerce or e-Commerce)
E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet.

Electronic Mail (email or e-mail)
Application that provides means for users to send messages, information and files to friends, colleagues or business partners electronically. These mails or messages can be sent over the Internet, internal network, or directly from one computer to another through a direct cable connection. No matter how the message is sent, most email systems are the same-transmitting text-based, or HTML-based messages from one computer to another.

Emoticons (Emotion Icons)
Keyboard phrases used to indicate emotions. E.g. :-) would indicate a smile and :-( would indicate a frown.

Ethernet
The widely used shared LAN (Local Area Network ) access method  which allows data transfer of up to10Mb per second, 100 Mb per second (Fast Ethernet) or 1000 Mb per second (Gigabit Ethernet).  With the switched Ethernet, each sender and receiver pair have the full bandwidth.



F
FAQ (Frequently Asked Question)
A set of commonly-asked questions about a subject along with the answers can be found across the World Wide Web.

FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface)
An ANSI standard token passing network that uses optical fiber cabling and transmits at 100 Mbits/sec up to 10 kilometers.

Filename extension
Commonly a three or four-letter extension on the end of a file name designating the file type. There are hundreds in existence, and new ones frequently being invented. Examples are: .txt (text file), .gif (Graphics Interchange Format).

Finger
A Unix program which finds information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system such as telephone number, whether currently logged on or the last time logged on.

Firewall
A protective software and/or hardware 'shield' that stops unauthorised guests or information from entering or leaving protected areas, such as a private network that's connected to the Internet.

Flame
To communicate emotionally and/or aggressively via electronic mail. Example cursing or insulting messages sent via email.

Form
A formatted screen display designed for a particular application.  A Web page form can be filled in by users and the information sent electronically.

Freeware
Free software found on the Net. It is not to be sold or used in any unauthorised way.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A protocol used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network (Internet, UNIX, etc.).  An FTP Site provides a depository for all kinds of files which users may download.



G
Gateway
An interface (using hardware or software) between two or more networks that use the same protocols. In this case, the gateway functions as an entry/exit point to the network. Transport protocol conversion may not be required, but some form of processing is typically performed.

GB (Gigabyte)
A thousand Megabytes.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
Bitmapped platform-independent graphics file format developed by Compuserve.  It supports 8-bit color (256 colors), good compression and widely used on the Web. The GIF filename extension is .gif.

Gopher
Internet Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval system.  It takes a request for information and then scans the Internet for it. The protocol and software follows a client-server model, and permits users on a heterogeneous mix of desktop systems to browse, search, and retrieve documents residing on multiple distributed server machines. .

GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A graphics-based user interface that incorporates icons, pull-down menus and a mouse.  The GUI has become the standard way users interact with a computer.



H
Header
Common text at the top of every page.

Hits
The number of times a program or item of data has been accessed or matches some condition.

Homepage
The first page retrieved when accessing a Web site. It serves as a table of contents to the rest of the pages on the site or to other Web Sites.

Host
A computer that acts as a source of information or signals whenever connection (network or Internet) is made.

HotJava
A Web browser developed by Sun Microsystems that supports Java programming.

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
The basic language use to create Web pages. HTML documents can be seen on any computer that has a Web browser

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
The method used to transport information in HTML format on the World Wide Web. HTTP allows communication point with Web pages without maintaining a continuous connection.

Hyperlink (Also referred as 'link.' Or “hypertext links”)
An element on a Web page or email that connect/jumps to another page, site or email.



I
internet
When spelt with a lower case i, it is a large network made up of a number of smaller networks.

Internet
With a capital I, it is the collection of all the interconnected networks in the world, commercialised into a worldwide information highway, providing on every subject known to humankind.  It is often referred to as the 'net'.

IP (Internet Protocol)
A network protocol.

IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)
The unique address of a computer (client and server) attached to a TCP/IP network that is either a permanent address or dynamically assigned.  IP addresses are written as four sets of numbers separated by periods; for example, 204.171.64.2.  Each Domain also has a Domain Name as well as an IP address to make site addresses easier to remember.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Real-time world-wide electronic chat program allowing the user to communicate with other people across the globe.

ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network)
A high-speed, fully digital telephone service and operates at speeds up to 128 kilobits/second. Five or more times faster than current analogue modems/systems.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Organisation or company that is licensed to provide Internet access to individuals and organization at large.



J
Java
Programming language written for client and server application.  Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java was modeled after C++, and Java programs can be called from within HTML documents or launched stand alone.  It compliments online multimedia effects, such as simple cartoon-like animation, background music and continuously updated information in Web pages.

JavaScript
Scripting language uses a similar syntax as Java.  However  the programming code (source code) is shown or embedded within an HTML document. It has a more limited scope than Java and primarily deals with the elements on the Web page itself.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
n image compression standard developed especially for use on the Internet. Most photographic images can be highly compressed using this method, without greatly diminishing image quality.  The JPEG filename extension is .jpg or .jpeg



K
Kilobyte
1024 bytes, usually rounded down to a thousand bytes for simplicity.



L
LAN (Local Area Network)
A communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area (commonly in the same building).

Leased Line
High-speed telephone line that has been leased for private use. It is also called a dedicated line.

Link
The connection point of one Web page to another Web page.

Login
The process of gaining access, or signing in, to a computer system, network, Internet, etc.



M
Mail Server
The computer (and its software) in a network that provides "post office" facility.  It stores incoming mail for distribution to users and forwards outgoing mail through the appropriate channel.

MB (Megabyte)
The unit of measurement for a thousand Kilobytes; a million bytes

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A common method for transmitting non-text files via Internet e-mail, e.g. images, sounds, animations and other types of documents.

Mirror site
An alternate site that contains the same information.

Modem (MODulator-DEModulator)
The transmission of digital information over an analog phone line.

Mosaic
A Web browser created by the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) in early 1993.  It provides a GUI for accessing data on the Web and caused interest in the World Wide Web to explode.

MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group)
Video compression format used for movie or animation clips.  MPEG filename extension are .mpg or .mpeg.



N
Navigation Bar
A list of options that allow a user to move through a Web site.

Netiquette (NETwork etIQUETTE)
Informal, largely undocumented set of rules designed to make the Web a polite and civilised 'society'.

Network
The transmission channels interconnecting two or more computers and is able to share resources.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A protocol used to synchronise the realtime clock in a computer.

Newsgroup
The Internet's discussion area dedicated to a specific topic.

Newsreader
Program that allows the user to read Newsgroup messages via Usenet.

NNTP (Net News Transport Protocol)
The protocol used to connect to Usenet groups on the Internet. Usenet newsreaders support the NNTP protocol.

Node
Any single computer connected to a network.



O
Offline
Not connected to the Internet, online service or internal network.

Online
Available for immediate use. Commonly refers to being connected to the Internet.



P
Packet
A block of data used for transmission in packet switched systems.

Page
A single HTML document
PKZIP or PKUNZIP
Compression programs for DOS, Windows, OS/2 and VMS/VAX from PKWARE Inc. The filename extension to compress and uncompress is the .zip.

Plug-ins
Plug-ins are helper applications that allow you to view or listen to different types of files that people place on their Web pages.

POP (Post Office Protocol)
A store-and-forward service, intended to move E-mail on demand from an intermediate server to a single destination machine, usually a PC or Macintosh.

Portal
A large Web site that is designed to be an entryway into the World Wide Web that offers various types of services. A one-stop web site.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
A data link protocol that provides dial up access connection to the Internet and had been developed by Internet Engineering Task Force in 1991.

Protocol
Rules governing transmitting and receiving of data



R
Resource
Information provided on the Internet that is useful to an individual user. It can be anything from a picture through to a video or application.
Router
A device that handles connection between 2 0r more packets and forwards data packets from one local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) to another.


S
Search Engine
Software that searches for data based on some criteria.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
An ISO standard for defining the format in a text document. An SGML document uses a separate Document Type Definition (DTD) file that defines the format codes, or tags, embedded within it. Since SGML describes its own formatting, it is known as a meta-language. SGML is a very comprehensive language that includes hypertext links. The HTML format used on the Web is an SGML document that uses a fixed set of tags.

Scripting language
Series of high-level programmed commands that designate to translate immediately instead of compiled ahead of time.  Most script language is not a general-purpose programming language and is usually limited to specific functions on an application or system program.

Self-extracting archive
An archived file with the filename extension .exe, indicating that when downloaded and run, it will be extracted by the decompressing program around it, without user intervention.

Server
The main computer in a network shared by multiple users.

Service Provider
An organisation that provides some type of communications service such as a telephone company or an Internet service provider (ISP).

Shareware
Trial software that you can download for free. However, there will be a time limit on the shareware. Hence it is designed to try some basic function before buying the software. Shareware is copyrighted and should not be resold to any party.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
Like PPP, lets you use a modem and phone lines to connect to the Internet without connecting to a host computer.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)
The standard e-mail protocol on the Internet. It is designed to allow the delivery of mail messages to Internet users.

Snail Mail
The conventional way of writing, posting your letters.

Surfing
A popular metaphor used for describing someone exploring the World Wide Web.



T
T1
A 1.544 Mbps point-to-point dedicated, digital circuit provided by the telephone companies.

T3
A 44.736 Mbps point-to-point dedicated line provided by the telephone companies.

Tag
A format code used in a document language.  Example: HTML tag, character tag, paragraph tag.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The communication method or 'protocol' used by all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP allows any computer to communicate with any other computer.

Telnet
A terminal emulation protocol commonly used on the Internet and TCP/IP-based networks. It allows a user at a terminal or computer to log onto a remote device and run a program. Telnet was originally developed for ARPAnet and is an inherent part of the TCP/IP communications protocol

Terabyte
1000 gigabytes

Thread
A topic or theme in an Internet newsgroup or groupware program that generates on-going e-mail from interested parties.

Timeout
The intentional ending of an incomplete task. Timeouts are common in communications applications in order to free up a line or port that is tied up with a request that has not been answered in a reasonable amount of time.



U
Unix
A multi-user, multitasking operating system that is widely used as the master control program in workstations and especially servers.

Upload
Transmit  files off a local computer up to a specified computer.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The address that defines the route to a file on the Web or any other Internet facility. URLs are typed into the browser to access Web pages.

Usenet (USEr NETwork)
A public access network on the Internet that provides user news and group e-mail. It is a giant, dispersed bulletin board that is maintained by volunteers who provide news and mail feeds to other nodes.



V
Veronica (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerised Archives)
A program that searches the Internet for specific resources by description, not just file name. Using Boolean searches (this AND this, this OR this, etc.).

Virus
A software created to infect a computer or computers. After the virus code is written, it is buried within an existing program. Once that program is executed, the virus code is activated and attaches copies of itself to other programs in the system. Infected programs copy the virus to other programs.



W
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
An international industry consortium founded in 1994 to develop common standards for the World Wide Web. It is hosted in the U.S. by the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT at www.w3.org

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers)
A database on the Internet that contains indexes to documents that reside on the Internet. Using the Z39.50 query language, text files can be searched based on keywords.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
A communications network that covers a wide geographic area, such as state or country.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A set of application programming interfaces (APIs) standard providing for cellular phones, pagers and other handheld devices with secure access to e-mail and text-based Web pages. WAP provides a complete environment for wireless applications that includes a wireless counterpart of TCP/IP and a framework for telephony integration such as call control and phone book access.

Web Hosting
Placing a Web page or Web site on a Web Server.

Web Page
A page in a World Wide Web document.

Web site
A collection of web pages developed by individuals or organisations. The objectives of the development of these pages range from personal information to providing a means for the public at large to know what products and services a particular company provides.

Web Server
A computer system that provides all the Internet services : HTTP server (Web pages), FTP server (file downloads), NNTP server (newsgroups) and SMTP server (mail service). This computer system should also includes the hardware, operating system, Web server software, TCP/IP protocols and the Web site content (Web pages).

WinSock (WINdows SOCKets)
A programming interface (API) between a Windows application and the TCP/IP protocol.

World Wide Web (The Web)
The graphical portion of the Internet that lets you navigate by clicking on links. An Internet facility that connects documents locally and remotely with an easy, point and click interface to the largest collection of online information in the world.

WWW (www.)
The www. prefix used on most Web addresses is actually the mnemonic name of the Web server used at the Web site in order to provide a recognizable address for everyone.


X
XML (eXtensible Mark up Language)
An open standard for describing data from the W3C. It is used for defining data elements on a Web page and business-to-business documents. It uses a similar tag structure as HTML; however, whereas HTML defines how elements are displayed, XML defines what those elements contain. HTML uses predefined tags, but XML allows tags to be defined by the developer of the page.



Y
Y2K (Year 2000)
An abbreviation used to signify the problem that many operating systems & application programs may not work properly after the year 2000. This is because the programs have been written using 2 characters to signify the year (95,96,97 etc) - not taking the century into consideration. 00 will represent year 2000 & the programs will process this year as if it occurs before any other (as 00 is less than 95).



Z
.ZIP
Files that have been compressed using the PKZIP program have this filename extension.

ZIP Drive
A Disk Drive developed by Iomega. Each disk is capable of storing 100 megabytes. Very popular for backups



1999/2000
© Allright Reserved by
Mohd Hafiz Yahaya